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Core Paper I



Introduction to microbial world, microbial nutrition, growth and metabolism.
Viruses:- Discovery, physicochemical and biological characteristics; classification (Baltimore), general structure with special reference to viroids and prions; replication (general account), DNA virus (T-phage), lytic and lysogenic cycle; RNA virus (TMV). Economic importance of viruses with reference to vaccine production, role in research, medicine and diagnostics, as causal organisms of plant diseases.


(i) Bacteria: - Discovery, general characteristics, types- archaebacteria, eubacteria, wall-less forms (mycoplasma and spheroplasts), cell structure, nutritional types, reproduction-vegetative, asexual and recombination (conjugation, transformation and transduction). Economic importance of bacteria with reference to their role in agriculture and industry (fermentation and medicine).
(ii) Cyanobacteria:-Ecology and occurrence, cell structure, heterocyst, reproduction, conomic importance; role in biotechnology. Morphology and life-cycle of Nostoc. General characteristics of prochlorophyceae, Evolutionary significance of Prochloron.


(i) Algae:- General characteristics; Ecology and distribution; range of thallus organization; Cell structure and components; cell wall, pigment system, reserve food (of only groups represented in the syllabus), flagella and methods of reproduction, classification; criteria, system of Fritsch, and evolutionary classification of Lee (only upto groups); Role of algae in the environment, agriculture, biotechnology and industry.
(ii) Chlorophyta:- General characteristics, occurrence, range of thallus organization, cell structure and reproduction. Morphology and life-cycles of Chlamydomonas, Volvox, Oedogonium and Coleochaete.


(i) Charophyta:- General characteristics; occurrence, morphology, cell structure and life-cycle of Chara; evolutionary significance.

(ii) Xanthophyta:- General characteristics; Occurrence, morphology and life- cycle of Vaucheria.

(iii)Phaeophyta:-Characteristics, occurrence, cell structure and reproduction. Morphology and life-cycles of Ectocarpus and Fucus.

(iv)Rhodophyta:-General characteristics, occurrence, cell structure and reproduction. Morphology and life-cycle of Polysiphonia.




(i) Electron micrographs/Models of viruses –T-Phage and TMV, Line drawings/ Photographs of Lytic and Lysogenic Cycle.
(ii) Types of Bacteria to be observed from temporary/permanent slides/photographs.
(iii)Examination of bacteria from bacterial culture by Gram’s staining method.
(iv)Electron micrographs of bacteria, binary fission, endospore, conjugation, root Nodule (live materials and photographs).


            Study of vegetative and reproductive structures of Nostoc, Chlamydomonas (electron micrographs), Volvox, Oedogonium,Coleochaete, Chara, Vaucheria, Ectocarpus, Fucus and Polysiphonia, Procholoron, Diatoms through, temporary preparations and permanent slides.

Text Books:

1. Singh, V., Pandey, P.C., and Jain, D.K. (2017). Microbiology and Phycology,Rastogi Publication, Meerut.

Reference Books:

1. Lee, R.E. (2008). Phycology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 4th edition.

2. Prescott, L.M., Harley J.P., Klein D. A. (2010). Microbiology, McGraw-Hill, India.8th edition.

3. Kumar, H.D. (1999). Introductory Phycology. Affiliated East-West Press, Delhi.

4. Campbell, N.A., Reece J.B., Urry L.A., Cain M.L., Wasserman S.A. Minorsky P.V.,Jackson R.B. (2008). Biology, Pearson Benjamin Cummings, USA. 8th edition.

5. Pelczar, M.J., Chan, E.C.S., Krieg, N.R. (2011) Microbiology, 8th edition, TataMcGraw-Hill Co, New Delhi.

6. Willey, Sherwood and Christopher. Laboratory exercises in Microbiology. McGrawHill, India. 9th edition.

7. Vasistha B.R. (2017) Botany for Degree student, Algae, S. Chand Publication, NewDelhi.

8. Mishra B. K. (2018) Microbiology and Phycology, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi.

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Core Paper I


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Core Paper II



(i) Biomolecules and Bioenergenetics: Types and significance of chemical bonds; Structure and properties of water; pH and buffers. Laws of thermodynamics, concept of free energy, endergonic and exergonic reactions, coupled reactions, redox reactions.

(ii) Enzymes: Structure of enzyme: holoenzyme, apoenzyme, cofactors, coenzymes and
prosthetic group; Classification of enzymes; Features of active site, substrate specificity, properties of enzymes, mechanism of action (activation energy, lock and key hypothesis, induced - fit theory), Michaelis – Menten equation, enzyme inhibition and factors affecting enzyme activity.

(iii)Carbohydrates: Nomenclature, classification, structure and function of Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides

Unit –II

(i) Lipids: Definition and major classes of storage and structural lipids. Fatty acids structure and functions. Essential fatty acids. Triacyl glycerols structure, functions and properties.

(ii) Proteins: Structure and classification of amino acids; Peptide bonds; Levels of protein structure-primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary; Isoelectric point; Protein denaturation and biological roles of proteins.

(iii)Nucleic acids: Structure of nitrogenous bases; Structure and function of nucleotides; Types of nucleic acids; Structure of A, B, Z types of DNA; Types of RNA; Structureof tRNA.

Unit –III

(i) The Cell: Cell as a unit of structure and function; Characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Origin of eukaryotic cell (Endosymbiotic theory).

(ii) Cell wall and plasma membrane: Chemistry, structure and function of Plant Cell Wall. Overview of membrane function; fluid mosaic model; Chemical composition of membranes; Membrane transport – Passive, active and facilitated transport, endocytosis and exocytosis.

(i) Cell organelles: Nucleus; Structure-nuclear envelope, nuclear pore complex, nuclear lamina, molecular organization of chromatin; nucleolus.


(i) Cytoskeleton: Role and structure of microtubules, microfilaments and intermediary filament.

(ii) Chloroplast, mitochondria and peroxisomes: Structural organization; Function; Semiautonomous nature of mitochondria and chloroplast. Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes.

(iii) Cell division: Eukaryotic cell cycle, different stages of mitosis and meiosis. Cell cycle, Regulation of cell cycle.


(i) Qualitative tests for carbohydrates, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, lipids and proteins.

(ii) Study of plant cell structure with the help of epidermal peel mount of Onion/Rhoeo

(iii)Demonstration of the phenomenon of protoplasmic streaming in Hydrilla leaf.

(iv)Counting the cells per unit volume with the help of haemocytometer. (Yeast/pollen grains).

(v) Study the phenomenon of plasmolysis and deplasmolysis.

(vi)Study of different stages of mitosis and meiosis using aceto carmine and aceto orcine method from Onion root tip and bud respectively.

Text Books:

1. Rastogi, V. B. (2016). Introductory Cytology, Kedar Nath & Ram Nath, Meerut

2. Gupta, P. K. (2017). Biomolecules and Cell Biology, Rastogi Publication, Meerut.

Reference Books:

1. Sahoo, K. (2017) Biomolecules and Cell Biology, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi.

2. Tymoczko, J.L., Berg, J.M. and Stryer, L. (2012) Biochemistry: A short course, 2nded., W.H. Freeman

3. Nelson, D.L. and Cox, M.M. (2008) Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, 5thEdition, W.H. Freeman and Company.

4. Cooper, G.M. and Hausman, R.E. 2009 The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 5th edition.ASM Press & Sunderland, Washington, D.C.; Sinauer Associates, MA.

5. Becker, W.M., Kleinsmith, L.J., Hardin. J. and Bertoni, G. P. 2009 The World of the Cell. 7th edition. Pearson Benjamin Cummings Publishing, San Francisco.

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Core Paper II

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Generic Elective Paper I



Microbes :Viruses – Discovery, general structure, replication (general account), DNA virus (T-phage); Lytic and lysogenic cycle, RNA virus (TMV); Economic importance; Bacteria – Discovery, General characteristics and cell structure; Reproduction – vegetative, asexual and recombination (conjugation, transformation and transduction); Economic importance.


(i) Algae: General characteristics; Ecology and distribution; Range of thallus organization and reproduction; Morphology and life- cycles of the following: Chlamydomonas, Oedogonium, Nostoc and Fucus, Vaucheria, Polysiphonia, Economic importance of algae.

(ii) Fungi : Introduction- General characteristics, ecology and significance, range of thallus organization, cell wall composition , nutrition, reproduction and classification; True Fungi- General characteristics, ecology and significance, life cycle of Rhizopus (Zygomycota) Penicillium (Ascomycota), Puccnia, Agaricus Basidiomycota); Symbiotic Associations-Lichens


(i) Bryophytes: General characteristics, adaptations to land habit, Classification, Range of thallus organization, Classification (up to family), morphology, anatomy and reproduction of Marchantia and Funaria (Developmental details not to be included).

(ii) Pteridophytes: General characteristics, classification, early land plants (Rhynia). Classification (up to family), morphology, anatomy and reproduction of Selaginella,Equisetum and Pteris (Developmental details not to be included).Heterospory and seed habit, stellar evolution. Ecological and economical importance of Pteridophytes.


Gymnosperms: General characteristics, classification. Classification (up to family), morphology, anatomy and reproduction of Cycas, Pinus and Gnetum. (Developmental details not to be included).Ecological and economical importance.


1. Gram staining

2. Study of vegetative and reproductive structures of Nostoc, Chlamydomonas,

Oedogonium, Vaucheria, Fucus and Polysiphonia through temporary preparationsand permanent slides.

3. Rhizopus and Penicillium: Asexual stage from temporary ounts and sexualstructures through permanent slides.

4. Puccinia and Agaricus: Specimens of button stage and full grown mushroom;Sectioning of gills of Agaricus.

5. Marchantia and Funaria- morphology of thallus, w.m. rhizoids and scales, v.s. thallusthrough gemma cup, w.m. gemmae (all temporary slides), v.s. antheridiophore,archegoniophore, l.s. sporophyte (all permanent slides).

6. Selaginella- morphology, w.m. leaf with ligule, t.s. stem, w.m. strobilus,w.m.microsporophyll and megasporophyll (temporary slides), l.s. strobilus
(permanent slide).

7. Equisetum- morphology, t.s. internode, l.s. strobilus, t.s. strobilus, w.m.sporangiophore, w.m. spores (wet and dry)(temporary slides); t.s rhizome (permanentslide).

8. Cycas- morphology (coralloid roots, bulbil, leaf), t.s. coralloid root, t.s. rachis, v.s.leaflet, v.s. microsporophyll, w.m. spores (temporary slides), l.s. ovule, t.s. root(permanent slide).

9. Pinus- morphology (long and dwarf shoots, w.m. dwarf shoot, male and female), w.m.dwarf shoot, t.s. needle, t.s. stem, , l.s./t.s. male cone, w.m. microsporophyll, w.m.microspores (temporary slides), l.s. female cone, t.l.s. & r.l.s. stem (permanent slide).

Text Books:

1. Mitra, J.N., Mitra, D. and Choudhury, S.K. Studies in Botany Volume 1. MoulikPublisher, Kolkata. Ninth Revised Edition

Reference Books:
1. Kumar, H.D. (1999). Introductory Phycology. Affiliated East-West. Press Pvt. Ltd.Delhi.2nd edition.

2. Tortora, G.J., Funke, B.R., Case, C.L. (2010). Microbiology: An Introduction, PearsonBenjamin Cummings, U.S.A. 10th edition.

3. Sethi, I.K. and Walia, S.K. (2011). Text book of Fungi & Their Allies, Mac MillanPublishers Pvt. Ltd., Delhi.

4. Alexopoulos, C.J., Mims, C.W., Blackwell, M. (1996). Introductory Mycology, JohnWiley and Sons (Asia), Singapore. 4th edition.

5. Raven, P.H., Johnson, G.B., Losos, J.B., Singer, S.R., (2005). Biology. Tata McGrawHill, Delhi, India.

6. Vashishta, P.C., Sinha, A.K., Kumar, A., (2010). Pteridophyta, S. Chand. Delhi, India.7. Bhatnagar, S.P. and Moitra, A. (1996). Gymnosperms. New Age International (P) LtdPublishers, New Delhi, India.

8. Parihar, N.S. (1991). An introduction to Embryophyta. Vol. I. Bryophyta. Central BookDepot, Allahabad.

9. Pandey, B. P. (2017), Botany for degree studies (as per CBCS). S. Chand

10. Acharya, B. S. and Mishra, B. K. (2018). Plant Biodiversity, Kalyani Publishers, NewDelhi.

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Generic Elective Paper I


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TIME: 3 HOURS                           END SEMESTER: 80
TIME: 1 HOUR                             MID SEMESTER: 20

Unit – I

The Environment: The Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, Lithosphere, Biosphere, Ecology, Ecosystem,Biogeochemical Cycle (Carbon Cycle, Nitrogen Cycle), Environment Pollution: Air Pollution,Water Pollution, Soil Pollution, Radiation Pollution.

Unit – II

Population Ecology: Individuals, Species, Pollution, Community, Control Methods ofPopulation, Urbanization and its effects on Society, Communicable Diseases and its Transmission, Non-Communicable Diseases.

Unit- III

Environmental Movements in India: Grass root Environmental movements in India, Role of women, Environmental Movements in Odisha, State Pollution Control Board, Central PollutionControl Board.

Unit –IV

Natural Resources: Conservation of Natural Resources, Management and Conservation of Wildlife, Soil Erosion and Conservation, Environmental Laws: Water Act, 1974, Air Act, 1981,The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, Environment Protection, 1986, Natural Disasters and their Management.

Books Recommended

1. Dash MC and Mishrs PC, Man and Environment, McMillan, London.

2. Mishra PC and Das MC, Environment and Society, McMillan, London.

3. Odeem EP, Fundamentals of Ecology, Natraj Publication.

4. Mishra DD, Fundamental Concept in Environmental Studies, S.Chand, New Delhi.

5. Asthana DK and Asthana Meera, A Testbook of Environmental Studies, S. Chand, New Delhi.

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