Generic Elective Paper I
Biodiversity

 

Unit 1

Microbes : Viruses- Discovery

  1. https://www.onlinebiologynotes.com/virus-structure-symmetry/

  2. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-microbiology/chapter/structure-of-viruses/

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/viruses/structure-of-viruses-with-diagram-botany/54588

  4. https://morgridge.org/wp-content/uploads/Virus-Structure.pdf

 

 

General Structure, Replication (General Account), DNA Virus (T-phage); Lytic and Lysogenic Cycle

  1. https://www.immunology.org/public-information/bitesized-immunology/pat%C3%B3genos-y-enfermedades/virus-replication

  2. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-microbiology/chapter/viral-replication/

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/viruses/bacteriophages-structure-and-reproduction-replication-cycle/5690

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/viruses/replication-of-virus-lytic-and-lysogenic-cycle/47112

  5. https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Microbiology/Book%3A_Microbiology_(OpenStax)/06%3A_Acellular_Pathogens/6.2%3A_The_Viral_Life_Cycle

 

RNA virus (TMV)

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/viruses/tobacco-mosaic-virus-tmv-structure-and-replication/54903

  2. https://pdb101.rcsb.org/motm/109

  3. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2013.00012/full

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/plant-diseases/tobacco-mosaic-virus-symptoms-and-control/58712

 

Economic Importance of Virus

  1. https://www.vaccines.gov/basics/types

  2. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002024.htm

  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inactivated_vaccine

  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus#Applications

  5. https://www.news-medical.net/health/Virus-Uses.aspx

  6. https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/31/3/739/297506

  7. https://www.wikilectures.eu/w/Biology_and_genetics_of_viruses,_importance_in_medicine

 

Bacteria: General Characteristics and Cell Structure

  1. https://microbiologyonline.org/about-microbiology/introducing-microbes/bacteria

  2. https://explorable.com/discovery-of-bacteria

  3. https://www.britannica.com/science/bacteria

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/bacteria-definition-morphology-classification-and-reproduction-microbiology/85801

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/cell-structure-of-bacteria-with-diagram/47058

  6. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/notes/bacteria-notes/notes-on-bacteria-biology/34260

  7. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/essay/essay-on-bacteria-microbiology/29550

  8. https://nptel.ac.in/courses/102103015/3

 

Structure of Bacteria

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/structure-of-bacterial-cell-with-diagram/29700

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/cell-structure-of-bacteria-with-diagram/47058

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/structure-of-bacterial-cell-with-diagram/29700

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/structure-of-bacteria-with-diagram-microbiology/54559

  5. https://www.onlinebiologynotes.com/bacterial-cell-structure-function/

 

 

Reproduction In Bacteria; Vegetative, Asexual and Recombination (Conjugation, Transformation and Transduction)

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/reproduction-in-bacteria-5-methods-with-diagram/47062

  2. https://www.biologyexams4u.com/2012/11/reproduction-in-bacteria-vegetative.html#.XO0JnlbhXIU

  3. https://biology.homeomagnet.com/reproduction-of-bacteria/

  4. https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/bacteria-archaea/prokaryote-structure/a/genetic-variation-in-prokaryotes

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/genetic-recombination-of-bacteria-with-diagram/47074

 

Economic Importance of Bacteria

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/economic-importance-of-bacteria-microbiology/63951

  2. https://notes.tyrocity.com/economic-importance-of-bacteria/

  3. https://www.britannica.com/science/bacteria/The-importance-of-bacteria-to-humans

  4. http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/bacteria/importance-of-bacteria-to-agriculture-and-industries-1049-words/6789

  5. http://istudy.pk/economic-importance-bacteria/

  6. https://www.studocu.com/en/document/al-hikmah-university/microbiology/lecture-notes/economic-importance-of-bacteria/2209869/view

 

 

Unit -2

Algae; General Characteristics; Ecology and Distribution; Range of Thallus Organization

  1. https://www.britannica.com/science/algae

  2. https://www.toppr.com/guides/evs/a-treat-for-mosquito/algae/

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/characteristics-algae/characteristics-of-algae-with-diagram/49889

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/algae-definition-characteristics-and-structure-with-diagram/46727

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/thallus-organisation-in-algae-botany/53555

  6. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/cell-structures-in-algae-with-diagram/46759

 

Reproduction In Algae

  1. https://www.britannica.com/science/algae/Reproduction-and-life-histories

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/reproduction-in-algae-3-modes/46735

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/reproduction-algae/reproduction-in-algae-botany/53445

 

Morphology and Life Cycle of Chlamydomonas

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/morphology-of-chlamydomonas-with-diagram-algae/54125

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/chlamydomonas-occurrence-features-and-life-history/46847

 

Morphology and Life Cycle of Nostoc

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/morphology-of-nostoc-with-diagram-algae/54167

  2. https://guidancecorner.com/nostoc/

 

Morphology and Life Cycle of Fucus

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/biology/6-most-important-characteristic-features-of-order-fucales/842

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/classification-of-fucales-with-diagram-algae/58105

  3. https://bio.rutgers.edu/~gb101/lab6_protists/m6c4.html

 

 

Morphology and Life Cycle of Vaucheria

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/morphology-of-vaucheria-with-diagram-algae/54200

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/vaucheria-occurrence-features-and-reproduction/46949

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/life-cycle-algae/vaucheria-occurrence-reproduction-and-life-cycle/21185

 

Morphology and Life Cycle of Polysiphonia

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/morphology-of-polysiphonia-with-diagram-algae/54214

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/polysiphonia-occurrence-features-and-reproduction/46779

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bryophyta/polysiphonia-occurrence-thallus-structure-and-reproduction/21249

 

Economic Importance of Algae

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/economic-importance-of-algae-botany-2/57866

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/essay/top-16-economic-importance-of-algae-biology/20897

  3. https://www.britannica.com/science/algae/Ecological-and-commercial-importance

  4. https://biology.homeomagnet.com/economic-importance-of-algae/

 

Fungi; Introduction General Characteristics, Ecology and Significance, Cell wall Composition

  1. https://microbiologyonline.org/about-microbiology/introducing-microbes/fungi

  2. https://www.britannica.com/science/fungus

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/fungi-meaning-characteristics-and-occurrence-botany/46481

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/characteristics-of-fungi-microbiology/64924

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/8-important-characters-of-fungi-with-diagram/5602

  6. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/essay/essay-on-fungi-biology/21760

  7. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-biology/chapter/characteristics-of-fungi/

  8. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/microbiology-2/structure-of-fungal-cell-microbiology/64992

 

 

Range of Thallus Organization

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/thallus-found-in-fungi-with-diagram-botany/62985

  2. https://www.britannica.com/science/fungus/Structure-of-the-thallus

  3. https://mycologysite.files.wordpress.com/2016/09/biol-319-lecture-4a-characteristics_of_fungi.pdf

 

Nutrition in Fungi

  1. https://www.ck12.org/biology/fungi-nutrition/lesson/How-Fungi-Eat-BIO/

  2. https://www.britannica.com/science/fungus/Nutrition

  3. http://bioexampreparation.blogspot.com/2017/10/fungi-mode-of-nutrition-in-fungi.html

  4. http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/fungi/4-important-classes-in-which-the-nutrition-of-fungi-may-be-classified/7486

 

Reproduction in Fungi

  1. http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/fungi/reproduction-in-fungi-vegetative-asexual-and-sexual-methods/7296

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/reproduction-fungi/reproduction-in-fungi-with-diagram-microbiology/49923

  3. https://www.easybiologyclass.com/reproduction-in-fungi-part-3-sexual-reproduction-lecture-notes-ppt/

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/reproduction-in-fungi-asexual-sexual-parasexual-reproduction-biology/86030

 

Classification

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/classification-fungi/classification-of-fungi-with-diagram/69720

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/classification-of-fungi-botany/63055

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/classification-of-fungi-microbiology/64806

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/classification-of-fungi-by-various-botanists/46471

  5. https://www.ck12.org/book/CK-12-Biology-Advanced-Concepts/section/12.24/

  6. https://www.britannica.com/science/fungus/Annotated-classification

 

 

True Fungi; General Characteristics

  1. https://sites.google.com/site/botany317/session-2/eukaryotes/unikonts/s2-fungi

 

 

Rhizopus

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/rhizopus-stolonifer-vegetative-structure-and-reproduction/46562

  2. http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/biology/habit-and-habitat-of-genera-mucor-and-rhizopus-biology/7375

  3. https://www.onlinebiologynotes.com/rhizopus-stolonifer-morphology-and-reproduction-of-black-bread-mold/

 

Penicillin

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/penicillium-occurrence-and-features-fungi/63468

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/life-cycle-of-penicillium-with-diagram-fungi/63497

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/economic-importance-of-penicillium-fungi/63456

 

Agaricus

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/salient-features-of-agaricus-fungi/64125

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/life-cycle-of-agaricus-fungi/64157

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/agaricus-habitat-structure-and-reproduction/24077

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/agaricus-introduction-vegetative-body-and-reproduction/46686

 

Lichen

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/notes/lichens/lichens-meaning-characteristics-and-classfication/46549

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/lichens-2/lichens-definition-structure-and-reproduction-with-diagram/69697

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/lichens-2/lichens-meaning-classification-and-occurrence/54312

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/essay/essay-on-lichens-biology/21002

  5. https://www.britannica.com/science/lichen

 

 

Unit – 3

Bryophytes; General Characteristics, adaptation to land habit, Range of Thallus Organization

  1. https://www.britannica.com/plant/bryophyte

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bryophyta/bryophytes-distribution-habitat-and-affinities-botany/53853

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bryophyta/bryophyta-features-classification-and-economic-importance/5654

  4. https://www.plantscience4u.com/2014/04/classification-of-bryophytes.html#.XQCV1FbhXIU

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/bryophytes/bryophytes-meaning-characteristics-and-affinities/46232

  6. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/essay/essay-on-bryophytes-meaning-distribution-and-habitat/21261

  7. https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/4109/9/09_introduction.pdf

  8. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bryophyta/classification-bryophyta/classification-of-bryophytes/21255

  9. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/bryophytes/classification-of-bryophytes-3-divisions/46224

 

Anatomy, Morphology and Reproduction of Marchantia

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bryophyta/quick-notes-on-marchantia-with-diagrams-biology/21405

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/bryophytes/structure-of-marchantia-with-diagram/46183

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/bryophytes/reproduction-in-marchantia-with-diagram/46298

 

 

Anatomy, Morphology and Reproduction of Funaria

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bryophyta/features-of-funaria-with-diagram-bryophyta/54320

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/bryophytes/structure-of-funaria-with-diagram/46188

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bryophyta/anatomy-of-funaria-with-diagram-bryophyta/54377

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/life-cycle/life-cycle-of-funaria-sexual-and-vegetative-life-cycle/5670

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/bryophytes/reproduction-in-funaria-with-diagram/46288

 

Economic Importance of Bryophytes

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/bryophytes/economic-importance-of-bryophytes-botany/53841

  2. http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/biology/5-most-important-economic-importance-of-bryophytes-biology/7440

 

Pteridophytes; General Characteristics, Classification

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/pteridophytes-meaning-origin-and-economic-importance/46096

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/plant-kingdom/pteridophytes-characters-and-economic-importance-plant-kingdom/52192

  3. https://www.easybiologyclass.com/pteridophytes-general-characters-with-power-point-presentation-ppt/

  4. https://www.toppr.com/guides/biology/plant-kingdom/pteridophytes/

  5. https://biodifferences.com/difference-between-bryophytes-pteridophytes.html

  6. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/pteridophytes/classification-pteridophytes/classification-of-pteridophytes-botany/52998

  7. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/pteridophyta/classification-of-pteridophyta-4-classes-botany/46058

 

Early Land Plants Cooksonia and Rhynia

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooksonia

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/list-of-4-important-early-vascular-plants/46091

  3. https://steurh.home.xs4all.nl/engcook/ecooks.html

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/pteridophytes/structure-of-rhynia-with-diagram-pteridophytes/53037

 

 

Classification, Morphology, Anatomy, Reproduction of Selaginella

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/pteridophyta/features-of-selaginella-with-diagram/54516

  2. https://www.plantscience4u.com/2014/05/notes-on-selaginella-systematic.html#.XQKKYVbhXIU

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/pteridophytes/selaginella-habitat-reproduction-and-life-cycle/53199

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/pteridophyta/selaginella-habitat-features-and-reproduction/46084

 

Classification, Morphology, Anatomy, Reproduction of Equisetum

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/pteridophyta/features-of-equisetum-with-diagram/54497

  2. https://www.plantscience4u.com/2016/06/notes-on-equisetum-systematic-position.html#.XQKKzVbhXIU

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/pteridophytes/equisetum-occurrence-and-phylogeny-botany/73873

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/pteridophyta/equisetum-habitat-structure-and-reproduction/46033

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/pteridophyta/anatomy-of-equisetum-with-diagram-pteridophyta/54440

 

Classification, Morphology, Anatomy, Reproduction of Pteris

  1. http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/biology/division-filicophyta-class-leptosporangiopsida-and-order-filicales-7002-words/7264

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/pteridophyta/dryopteris-structure-and-reproduction-with-diagram/45906

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/pteridophyta/pteris-structure-and-reproduction/45952

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/pteridophytes/pteris-distribution-and-gametophyte-botany/73607

 

Heterospory and Seed Habit

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/pteridophytes/heterospory-and-seed-habit-in-pteridophytes-botany/53013

  2. https://www.easybiologyclass.com/heterospory-and-seed-habitat-in-pteridophytes-short-notes/

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/seed/seed-habit-meaning-origin-and-evolution/45863

  4. https://www.plantscience4u.com/2014/04/heterospory-and-seed-habit-in_11.html#.XQKNN1bhXIU

 

Setllar Evolution in Pteridophytes

  1. https://www.easybiologyclass.com/types-of-stelar-systems-and-its-evolution-in-pteridophytes-and-higher-plants-with-ppt/

  2. https://www.plantscience4u.com/2014/04/types-of-stelar-system-and-its.html#.XQKN0FbhXIU

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/vascular-plants/evolution-of-stelar-forms-in-vascular-plants-botany/69221

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plant-anatomy/evolution-of-stele-plants/69220

 

Ecological and economic importance of Pteridophytes

  1. https://www.ucbmsh.org/colleges-in-dehradun/courses/botany-courses-in-dehradun/economic-importance-pteridophytes

  2. http://www.biology.lifeeasy.org/5419/economic-importance-of-pteridophytes

 

 

Unit - 4

Gymnosperms: General Characteristics, Classification

  1. https://www.britannica.com/plant/gymnosperm

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/gymnosperm/gymnosperms-characteristics-types-and-economic-importance/52198

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/biology/18-important-characters-of-gymnosperms-explained/5714

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/gymnosperm/gymnosperms-classification-and-main-orders-botany/18738

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/gymnosperm/gymnosperm-classification-and-economic-importance/5726

  6. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/gymnosperm/gymnosperms-definition-external-features-and-reproduction/53316

 

Classification, Morphology, Anatomy, Reproduction of Cycas

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/gymnosperm/cycas-distribution-morphology-and-reproduction-cycadales/22280

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/gymnosperm/cycas/cycas-distribution-reproduction-and-economic-importance/53265

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/gymnosperm/cycas-external-features-and-different-parts/33950

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/life-cycle/life-cycle-of-cycas-vegetative-and-sexual-life-cycle/5766

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/articles/cycas-occurrence-morphological-features-and-economic-importance/5720

 

 

Classification, Morphology, Anatomy, Reproduction of Pinus

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/gymnosperm/pinus-external-morphology-and-different-parts/33923

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/essay/gymnosperms/essay-on-the-life-cycle-of-pinus-class-coniferopsida-gymnosperms-botany/76971

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/essay/gymnosperms/essay-on-pinus-class-coniferopsida-gymnosperms-botany/76598

  4. http://istudy.pk/pinus/

 

Classification, Morphology, Anatomy, Reproduction of Gnetum

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/gymnosperm/living-gymnosperms/an-overview-on-gnetopsida-botany/19125

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/gymnosperm/gnetum-distribution-habitat-and-relationships-gnetales/22583

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/gymnosperm/gnetales-taxonomic-arrangements-and-characteristics-plants/22468

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/essay/gymnosperms/essay-on-the-life-cycle-of-gnetum-class-gnetopsida-gymnosperms-botany/76855

 

Economic Importance of Gymnosperm

  1. https://www.easybiologyclass.com/economic-importance-of-gymnosperms-short-notes/

  2. https://www.easybiologyclass.com/economic-importance-of-gymnosperms-short-notes/

  3. https://www.plantscience4u.com/2014/05/economic-importance-of-gymnosperms.html#.XQU0ClbhXIU