Core Paper IV
ARCHEGONIATAE

Unit-I


Introduction: Unifying features of archegoniates; Alternation of generations. General characteristics

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bryophyta/characteristics-of-bryophyta-botany/54090

  2. https://www.britannica.com/plant/bryophyte#ref57920

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bryophyta/bryophyta-features-classification-and-economic-importance/5654

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/bryophytes/bryophytes-meaning-characteristics-and-affinities/46232

Transition to land habit : Origin of land plants and Adaptations to land habit

  1. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-biology/chapter/early-plant-life/

  2. http://bio1520.biology.gatech.edu/biodiversity/land-plants/

  3. https://www.ck12.org/biology/plant-evolution/lesson/Plants-Adaptations-for-Life-on-Land-MS-LS/

Bryophytes : Origin and Classification; Range of thallus organization. Classification (up to family). Structure, Reproduction and evolutionary trends in Riccia, Marchantia, Anthoceros and Funaria (developmental stages not included). Ecological and economic importance of bryophytes

  1. https://www.britannica.com/plant/bryophyte#ref57920

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/bryophytes/bryophytes-meaning-characteristics-and-affinities/46232

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bryophyta/bryophyta-features-classification-and-economic-importance/5654

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bryophyta/bryophytes-reproduction-origin-and-affinities-with-diagram/21265

  5. Riccia  http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/bryophytes/reproduction-in-riccia-with-diagram/46221

  6. Marchantia  http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/bryophytes/reproduction-in-marchantia-with-diagram/46298

  7. Anthoceros  http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/bryophytes/reproduction-in-anthoceros-with-diagram/46257

  8. Anthoceros  http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bryophyta/life-cycle-of-anthoceros-with-diagram-anthocerotopsida/54051

  9. Funaria http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/bryophytes/reproduction-in-funaria-with-diagram/46288

  10. Funaria http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/bryophytes/life-cycle-of-funaria-with-diagram-bryopsida/53931

 

Unit-II
Pteridophytes: General characteristics, classification. Classification (up to family),
morphology, anatomy and reproduction of Psilotum, Selaginella, Equisetum, Pteris and Marsilea

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/articles/pteridophytes-features-economic-importance-and-classification/5698

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/pteridophytes/13-important-characters-of-pteridophytes-explained/5692

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/pteridophyta/characteristics-of-pteridophyta-botany/54064

  4. Psilotum  http://www.biologydiscussion.com/pteridophytes/psilotum-distribution-and-phylogeny-botany/73691

  5. Psilotum  http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/pteridophyta/psilotum-features-reproduction-and-phylogeny/46152

  6. Selaginella  http://www.biologydiscussion.com/pteridophytes/selaginella-habitat-reproduction-and-life-cycle/53199

  7. Selaginella  http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/pteridophyta/selaginella-habitat-features-and-reproduction/46084

  8. Equisetum  http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/pteridophyta/equisetum-habitat-structure-and-reproduction/46033

  9. Pteris  http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/pteridophyta/pteris-structure-and-reproduction/45952

  10. Marsilea  http://www.biologydiscussion.com/pteridophytes/marsilea-habitat-external-features-and-reproduction/53235

  11. Marsilea  http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/pteridophyta/marsilea-habit-structure-and-reproduction/45960

Apogamy, and apospory, heterospory and seed habit, telome theory, stellar evolution and economic importance

  1. http://botanydictionary.org/apogamy.html

  2. http://botanydictionary.org/apospory.html

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/pteridophytes/heterospory-and-seed-habit-in-pteridophytes-botany/53013

  4. https://www.slideshare.net/gohilsanjay3/heterospory-and-seed-habit-108932382

  5. https://www.easybiologyclass.com/heterospory-and-seed-habitat-in-pteridophytes-short-notes/

  6. https://www.plantscience4u.com/2014/04/heterospory-and-seed-habit-in.html#.XnxEhOozaUk

  7. Telome theory http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/telome-theory-with-diagram/45897

  8. https://botanytricks.blogspot.com/2018/08/telome-theory.html

  9. https://www.slideshare.net/DEEPAKDAS94/telome-theory

  10. Stellar evolution https://www.easybiologyclass.com/types-of-stelar-systems-and-its-evolution-in-pteridophytes-and-higher-plants-with-ppt/

  11. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plant-tissues/tissue-system/stelar-system-of-plant-definition-and-types-with-diagrams/20313

  12. https://www.plantscience4u.com/2014/04/types-of-stelar-system-and-its.html#.XnxKC-ozaUk

  13. Economic importance http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/plant-kingdom/pteridophytes-characters-and-economic-importance-plant-kingdom/52192

  14. https://www.slideshare.net/hunter515/economic-importance-of-pteridophyta

 

Unit-IV

Palaeobotany: Geological time scale, fossils and fossilization process

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/palaeobotany/palaeobotany-meaning-and-significance/53320

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/paleobotany/palaeobotany-concept-technique-and-important-strata-botany/18744

  3. Geological time scale http://www.biologydiscussion.com/articles/geological-time-scale-meaning-divisions-and-events/22622

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/articles/geological-time-scale-meaning-divisions-and-events/22622

  5. Fossil  fossilization process http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fossils/fossils-definition-and-its-study-biology/73890

  6. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fossils/fossils-meaning-formation-and-types/22624

  7. https://biologyboom.com/fossil-and-fossilization/

 

Morphology, anatomy and affinities of Rhynia, Calamites, Lepidodendron, Lyginopteris, Cycadeoidea and Williamsonnia

  1. Rhunia http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/pteridophyta/features-and-anatomy-of-rhynia-with-diagram/54458

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/pteridophytes/structure-of-rhynia-with-diagram-pteridophytes/53037

  3. Calamites http://www.biologydiscussion.com/pteridophytes/calamites-features-and-structure-botany/73882

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/pteridophyta/calamites-habit-sub-genera-and-structure/46026

  5. Lepododendron http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/pteridophyta/lepidodendron-habit-habitat-and-structure/46148

  6. Lyginopteris http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/lyginopteris-position-features-and-reproductive-structure-botany/18788

  7. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/gymnosperm/lyginopteridaceae-features-nomenclature-and-anatomy/22086

  8. Cycadeoidea http://www.biologydiscussion.com/gymnosperm/cycadeoidea-history-features-and-anatomy-bennetitales/22142

  9. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/cycadeoideales-introduction-classification-and-features-botany/18783

  10. Williamsonnia http://www.biologydiscussion.com/gymnosperm/williamsonia-occurrence-external-features-and-reproduction-bennettitales/22132

  11. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/quick-notes-on-williamsonia-botany/18837