Core Paper III
MYCOLOGY AND PHYTOPATHOLOGY

UNIT-1

Introduction to true fungi: Definition, General characteristics

  1.  http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/fungi-meaning-characteristics-and-occurrence-botany/46481

  2. https://www.britannica.com/science/fungus

  3. https://mycologysite.files.wordpress.com/2016/09/biol-319-lecture-4a-characteristics_of_fungi.pdf

  4. https://microbiologyonline.org/index.php/about-microbiology/introducing-microbes/fungi

  5. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-biology/chapter/characteristics-of-fungi/

  6. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/8-important-characters-of-fungi-with-diagram/5602

  7. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/fungi-meaning-characteristics-and-occurrence-botany/46481

  

Affinities with plants and animals

  1. https://www.brighthubeducation.com/science-homework-help/8061-relationship-between-animal-plant-and-fungi-phylogeny/

  2. https://sciencing.com/fungi-plants-similar-5145346.html

Thallus organization

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/thallus-found-in-fungi-with-diagram-botany/62985

  2. https://www.britannica.com/science/fungus/Structure-of-the-thallus

  3. https://mycologysite.files.wordpress.com/2016/09/biol-319-lecture-4a-characteristics_of_fungi.pdf

Cell wall composition

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/structure-of-fungal-cell-with-diagram-fungi/63013

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/microbiology-2/structure-of-fungal-cell-microbiology/64992

Nutrition

  1. https://www.easybiologyclass.com/nutrition-in-fungi-ppt/

  2. https://www.britannica.com/science/fungus/Nutrition

  3. http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/fungi/4-important-classes-in-which-the-nutrition-of-fungi-may-be-classified/7486

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/nutrition-in-fungi-with-diagrams-botany/63004

Classification

  1. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/wong/Bot201/Myxomycota/Introduction.htm

  2. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-biology2xmaster/chapter/classification-of-fungi/

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/classification-fungi/classification-of-fungi-with-diagram/69720

Zygomycota: General characteristics; Ecology; Thallus organisation; Life cycle with reference to Rhizopus

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/zygomycetes-features-and-classification-fungi/63470

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/zygomycetes-features-and-significance-phycomycotina/54814

  3. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wm-biology2/chapter/zygomycota/

  4. https://www.sparknotes.com/biology/microorganisms/fungi/section3/

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/rhizopus-stolonifer-vegetative-structure-and-reproduction/46562

  6. https://biologyreader.com/rhizopus.html

  7. https://www.onlinebiologynotes.com/rhizopus-stolonifer-morphology-and-reproduction-of-black-bread-mold/

Ascomycota: General characteristics (asexual and sexual fruiting bodies) Ecology; Life cycle, Heterokaryosis and parasexuality

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/ascomycetes-features-and-significance-fungi/54816

  2. https://www.microscopemaster.com/ascomycota.html

  3. https://www.sparknotes.com/biology/microorganisms/fungi/section2/

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/reproduction-in-ascomycetes-with-diagram-fungi/58317

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/life-cycle-of-ascomycetes-with-diagram-fungi/58233

  6. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/ascomycetes-somatic-structures-and-phylogeny/58340

  7. http://istudy.pk/ascomycota-fruit-bodies/

  8. Heterokaryosis and parasexuality  https://www.slideshare.net/vinodupadhyay14661/heterokaryosis-and-parasexuality

Life cycle and classification with reference to Saccharomyces, Aspergillus, Penicillium,and Neurospora

  1. Saccharomyces  http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/saccharomyces-reproduction-and-life-cycle-eumycota/46654

  2. Saccharomyces  http://www.biologydiscussion.com/articles/saccharomyces-structure-nutrition-and-life-cycle-with-diagram/5650

  3. Aspergillus  http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/life-cycle-of-aspergillus-with-diagram-fungi/63525

  4. Aspergillus  https://www.microscopemaster.com/aspergillus.html

  5. Penicillium  http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/life-cycle-of-penicillium-with-diagram-fungi/63497

  6. Penicillium  http://istudy.pk/penicillium/

  7. Neurospora  http://www.fgsc.net/Neurospora/sectionB2.htm

  8. Neurospora  https://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/iGen3_04-02.html

Basidiomycota: General characteristics; Ecology and Classification; Life cycle of Puccinia and Agaricus

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/basidiomycetes-meaning-features-and-significance-fungi/54815

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/basidiomycetes-characteristics-and-life-cycle-fungi/58429

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/classification-of-phylum-basidiomycota-fungi-biology/86035

  4. Puccinia  http://istudy.pk/puccinia/

  5. Puccinia  http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/life-cycle-of-puccinia-graminis-fungi/64110

  6. Agaricus  http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/life-cycle-of-agaricus-fungi/64157

  7. Agaricus  http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/agaricus-introduction-vegetative-body-and-reproduction/46686

Unit-II

Allied Fungi: General characteristics; Status of Slime molds, Classification; Occurrence; Types of plasmodia; Types of fruiting bodies

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/protists/general-characters-of-slime-moulds-8-characters-protists/52110

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/slime-moulds-characters-types-and-economic-importance/54823

  3. http://www.hiddenforest.co.nz/slime/what.htm

Oomycota: General characteristic; Ecology; Life cycle and classification with reference to Phytophthora, and Albugo.

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/oomycetes-features-and-significance-phycomycotina/54811

  2. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/wong/Bot201/Oomycota/Oomycota.htm

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/life-cycle-of-the-zoospores-oomycetes/63276

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/oomycetes-saprolegniales-pythiales-peronosporales-fungi-biology/86037

  5. Phytophthora  http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/life-cycle-of-phytophthora-with-diagram-oomycetes/63384

  6. Phytophthora  https://bio113portfolioleighhobson2.weebly.com/phytophthora-infestans.html

  7. Albugo  http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/life-cycle-of-albugo-with-diagram-oomycetes/63415

  8. Albugo http://istudy.pk/albugo/

Symbiotic associations: Lichen – Occurrence; General characteristics; Growth forms and range of thallus organization; Nature of associations of algal and fungal partners
 

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/notes/lichens/lichens-meaning-characteristics-and-classfication/46549

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/lichens-2/lichens-definition-structure-and-reproduction-with-diagram/69697

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/notes/lichens/study-notes-on-lichens-biology/34202

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/lichens-2/lichens-symbiotic-association-and-reproduction/49914

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/lichens-2/thallus-structure-of-lichens-with-diagram/49874

  6. Range of thallus http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/lichens-botany/structure-of-lichen-thallus-with-diagram/63870

  7. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/lichens-botany/4-main-types-of-lichen-thallus-with-diagram-botany/63977

Reproduction. Mycorrhiza-Ectomycorrhiza, Endomycorrhiza and their significance. Economic importance of Lichens

  1. http://website.nbm-mnb.ca/mycologywebpages/NaturalHistoryOfFungi/Mycorrhizae.html

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/lichens-botany/reproduction-in-lichens-with-diagram-botany/63911

  3. http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/reproduction/3-types-of-reproduction-that-are-found-in-lichens-biology/6945

  4. Economic Importance http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/reproduction/3-types-of-reproduction-that-are-found-in-lichens-biology/6945

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/lichens-2/importance-of-lichens-8-importance-with-diagram/69689

  6. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/lichens-botany/economic-importance-of-lichens-plants/63916

Unit-III

Applied Mycology: Role of fungi in biotechnology, Mushroom cultivation, Application of fungi in food industry (Flavour & texture, Fermentation, Baking, Organic acids, Enzymes, Mycoproteins); Secondary metabolites (Pharmaceutical preparations); Agriculture (Biofertilizers); Mycotoxins; Biological control (Mycofungicides, Mycoherbicides, Mycoinsecticides, Myconematicides); Medical mycology.

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/biotechnology/fungal-biotechnology/top-6-fungal-products-obtained-from-fungal-biotechnology/8530

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/economic-importance-of-fungi-botany/63827

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/fungi-is-used-for-the-following-reasons/5620

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/useful-and-harmful-activities-of-fungi/46534

Unit-IV

Phytopathology: Terms and concepts; General symptoms; Geographical distribution of diseases; etiology; symptomology; Host- Pathogen relationships; disease cycle and environmental relation

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plant-pathology/biology-notes-on-plant-pathology/46320

  2. General symptoms http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/plant-diseases/general-symptoms-of-plant-diseases-with-diagram-botany/64046

  3. Host pathogen relationship http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plant-pathology/host-pathogen-relationship-3-stages/58604

  4. disease and symptoms http://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/classification-of-plant-diseases-botany/58670

  5. https://www.slideshare.net/ajuna1234/introduction-to-plant-pathology-88703653

  6. https://extension2.missouri.edu/mg13

Prevention and control of plant diseases, and role of quarantine

  1. https://extension2.missouri.edu/mg13

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/plant-diseases/top-4-methods-of-controlling-plant-diseases-agriculture/24146

  3. Role of quarantine https://www.bioversityinternational.org/fileadmin/bioversity/publications/Web_version/174/ch09.htm

Bacterial diseases – Citrus canker and angular leaf spot disease of Cotton

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/plant-diseases/citrus-canker-symptoms-and-control-plant-diseases/58704

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/plant-diseases/citrus-canker-disease-with-diagram/64321

  3. https://www.easybiologyclass.com/citrus-canker-symptoms-causal-organism-and-control-measures-pathology-lecture-notes/

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/bacterial-diseases-in-plants-with-control-measures/24114

Viral diseases – Tobacco Mosaic, Vein Clearing

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/plant-diseases/tobacco-mosaic-virus-symptoms-and-control/58712

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/diseases-caused-by-virus-in-plants-with-control-measures/24110

Fungal diseases – Early blight of potato, Loose and covered smut

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/plant-diseases/early-blight-of-potato-with-diagram-plant-diseases/64337

  2. https://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/disandpath/fungalasco/pdlessons/Pages/PotatoTomato.aspx

  3. Loose and covered Smut http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/plant-diseases/loose-smut-of-wheat-with-diagram-plant-diseases/64288

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/plant-diseases/covered-smut-of-barley-symptoms-and-control-plant-diseases/58677