Core Paper II


Biomolecules and Cell Biology

 

Unit 1

Biomolecules and Bioenergetics: Types and Significance of Chemical Bonds

Biomolecules:- Fundamentals

  1. https://www.britannica.com/science/biomolecule

  2. http://ncert.nic.in/textbook/pdf/lech205.pdf

  3. https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Principles_of_Biochemistry/Biomolecules

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/biomolecules/biomolecules-top-4-classes-of-biomolecules/11169

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/biomolecules/life-as-complex-organization-of-biomolecules/25559

  6. Video Links

 

Types and Significance of Chemical Bonds

  1. https://www.brighthubeducation.com/science-homework-help/121309-understanding-the-use-of-chemical-bonds-in-chemistry/

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plant-physiology-2/chemical-bonds/top-5-types-of-chemical-bonds-plant-physiology/25509

  3. https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Human_Biology/Book%3A_Human_Biology_(Grewal_and_Wakim)/3%3A_Chemistry_of_Life/3.03%3A_Chemical_Bonding

  4. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/mhccmajorsbio/chapter/chemical-bonds/

 

Structure and Properties of Water

 

  1. https://www.ck12.org/biology/structure-and-properties-of-water/lesson/Biochemical-Properties-of-Water-Advanced-BIO-ADV/

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cell/water-molecular-structure-of-water-with-diagram/6014

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/articles/properties-of-water-and-its-importance-to-life/6008

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/plant-physiology/water-and-plant-life-with-diagram/22648

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plant-physiology-2/water-relation/top-10-properties-of-water-molecules-plant-physiology/39624

  6. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/introchem/chapter/the-structure-and-properties-of-water/

 

pH and buffers

  1. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wm-nmbiology1/chapter/buffers-ph-acids-and-bases/

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/biophysics/ph-definition-and-determination-biophysics/36601

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/biophysics/chemical-compounds/acid-base-and-buffers-chemical-compounds-biophysics-biology/81100

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/micro-biology/buffer-system-meaning-and-importance-with-diagram/17981

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/biophysics/buffers-definition-principles-and-uses/36555

  6.  

 

Bioenergetics

 

  1. http://www.bioinfo.org.cn/book/biochemistry/chapt13/sim1.htm

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/plant-physiology/bioenergetics-and-thermodynamics-plants/23778

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/biology/laws-of-thermodynamics-in-bioenergetics-with-diagram/3350

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/biochemistry/bioenergetics/essay-on-bioenergetics-biochemistry/42121

  5. https://bio.libretexts.org/Courses/University_of_California_Davis/BIS_2A%3A_Introductory_Biology_(Easlon)/Readings/06.7%3A_Endergonic_and_Exergonic_Reactions

  6. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/biology/coupled-reaction-in-bioenergetics/3363

  7. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/biochemistry/chemical-reactions/oxidation-and-reduction-reactions-chemical-reactions-chemistry/78871

  8. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/organism/oxidation-reduction-reactions-in-living-organisms/50388

 

Enzymes: Structure of enzyme: Holoenzyme, apoenzyme, cofactors, conenzyme and prosthetic group; Classification of Enzyme; Feature of Active Site, Substrate Specificity, Mechanism of action (Activation Energy, Lock and Key Hypothesis, Induce-Fit Hypothesis)

  1. https://www.britannica.com/science/enzyme

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/enzymes/enzymes-meaning-mechanism-classification-factors-and-importance/17003

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/enzymes/enzymes-properties-and-mechanism-of-enzyme-action/6145

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/notes/enzymes-notes/biology-notes-on-enzymes/69993

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/metabolism/microbial-metabolism/enzymes-definition-mechanisms-and-classification-microbiology/65516

 

Michelis Menten Equation

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/enzymes/michaelis-menten-constant-with-diagram-and-significance/22954

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/enzymes/the-kinetics-of-enzyme-action-with-diagram/3297

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/enzymes/kinetics-of-enzymatic-reactions-biochemistry/71432

  4. https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Biological_Chemistry/Supplemental_Modules_(Biological_Chemistry)/Enzymes/Enzymatic_Kinetics/Michaelis-Menten_Kinetics

 

Enzyme Inhibition and Factors effecting Enzyme Activity

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/enzymes/enzymes-meaning-mechanism-classification-factors-and-importance/17003

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/organism/metabolism-organism/reversible-enzyme-inhibition-microbiology/50373

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/enzymes/enzymology/factors-affecting-the-enzyme-activity-enzymology/51441

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/enzymes/allosteric-inhibition-with-diagram-enzymes/22938

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/difference/difference-between-competitive-inhibition-and-allosteric-inhibition/44852

 

Carbohydrates: Nomenclature, Classification and Function of Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides.

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/carbohydrates-metabolism-plants/carbohydrates-meaning-classification-and-structural-features-plants/23108

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/carbohydrates/carbohydrates-and-its-types/6068

  3. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wm-biology1/chapter/reading-types-of-carbohydrates/

  4. https://www.britannica.com/science/carbohydrate

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/carbohydrates/carbohydrates-monosaccharides-disaccharides-and-polysaccharides/16893

 

Unit 2

 

Lipids: Definition and Major Classes of Storage and Structural Lipids

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/lipids/lipids-and-its-types-with-diagram/6066

  2. https://www.britannica.com/science/lipid

  3. http://www.bioinfo.org.cn/book/biochemistry/chapt09/sim1.htm

  4. https://slideplayer.com/slide/10789539/

  5. https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Structural_Biochemistry/Lipids

  6. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/lipids/lipids-types-simple-compound-and-derived-lipids/41880

  7. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/lipid-metabolism/4-main-groups-of-lipids-plants/51738

 

Essential Fatty Acid

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/biochemistry/lipid-metabolism-biochemistry/essential-fatty-acids-chemistry-synthesis-and-functions/43534

 

Triacyl Glycerols Structure, Function and properties

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triglyceride

  2. https://www.slideshare.net/AshfaqAhmad52/triacylglycerol

  3. https://alevelnotes.com/notes/biology/biological-molecules/biological-molecules/lipids

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/lipids/lipids-types-simple-compound-and-derived-lipids/41880

 

Protein: Structure of Amino Acids; Peptide Bonds, Levels of Protein Structure, Primary Tertiary, Quaternary; Isoelectric Point. 

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/amino-acids/amino-acids-concept-classification-and-reactions/16937

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/amino-acids/amino-acids-types-and-peptide-formation/52577

  3. https://www.onlinebiologynotes.com/amino-acids-characteristics-classification-amino-acids/

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/proteins/protein-and-its-structure-explained/6082

  5. https://www.britannica.com/science/protein

  6. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/proteins/proteins-functions-structure-properties-and-classification/16912

  7. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/proteins/proteins-composition-and-structure-macromolecules/35903

  8. Denaturation of Protein (http://www.biologydiscussion.com/proteins/denaturation-of-proteins-with-denaturing-agents/41902 )

  9. https://www.biotecharticles.com/Others-Article/Biological-Functions-of-Proteins-453.html

  10. Biological Role of Protein (https://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/protein-function-14123348)

  11. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/proteins/functions-of-protein-organic-constituent/44855

 

 

Nucleic Acids: Structure of Nitrogenous Base; Structure and Function of Nucleotides. Types of Nucleic Acid; Types of Nucleic Acids; Structure of A, B, Z type of DNA; Types of RNA; Structure of t RNA

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/acids/nucleic-acid/nucleoside-and-nucleotide-nucleic-acid/16971

  2. https://www.britannica.com/science/nucleic-acid

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/acids/nucleic-acid/nucleic-acids-an-overview-with-diagram-molecular-biology/16306

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/acids/nucleic-acid/relation-among-nucleic-acids-nucleotides-and-nucleosides/35601

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/acids/nucleic-acid/nucleic-acids-meaning-and-structure-macromolecules/35825

  6. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/acids/nucleic-acid/dna-and-rna-of-nucleic-acids-biochemistry/41971

  7. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/acids/nucleic-acid/nucleic-acids-meaning-and-structure-macromolecules/35825

  8. https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Biochemistry/Book%3A_Biochemistry_Free_For_All_(Ahern%2C_Rajagopal%2C_and_Tan)/2%3A_Structure_and_Function/2.6%3A_Structure_and_Function_-_Nucleic_Acids

  9. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-biology/chapter/nucleic-acids/

  10. RNA (http://www.biologydiscussion.com/rna/rna-introduction-synthesis-and-types/11775)

  11. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/rna/rna-types-3-main-types-of-rna-with-diagram/16371

  12. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/rna/types-of-rna-ribonucleic-acid-4-types/44919

  13. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/microbiology/chapter/structure-and-function-of-rna/

 

 

Unit 3

The Cell: Cell as a Unit of Structure and Function; Characteristics of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells; Origin of Eukaryotic Cells

  1. https://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/an-introduction-to-nutrition/s07-01-the-basic-structural-and-funct.html

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cell/unit-of-life/cell-the-basic-unit-of-life-with-diagram/11099

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cell/cell-meaning-discovery-and-types-cell-biology/26264

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cytology/2-main-types-of-cell-cytology/83449

  5. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-microbiology/chapter/overview-of-prokaryotic-and-eukaryotic-cells/

  6. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cell/prokaryotic-cell-18-main-characteristics-with-diagram/70525

  7. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cell/eukaryotic-cells-types-and-structure-with-diagram/5861

  8. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/eukaryotic-cell/difference-between-prokaryotic-and-eukaryotic-cells/35107

  9. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/difference/difference-between-prokaryotic-cells-and-eukaryote-cells/70409

  10. Origin of Eukaryotic Cell http://www.biologydiscussion.com/eukaryotic-cell/hypothesis-and-the-origin-of-eukaryotic-cell-biology/38563

  11. https://www.encyclopedie-environnement.org/en/life/symbiosis-and-evolution-origin-eukaryotic-cell/

  12. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/biology1/chapter/eukaryotic-origins/

 

Cell Division: Eukaryotic Cell cycle, Different Stages of Mitosis and Meiosis, Cell Cycle and Regulation of Cell Cycle

  1.  http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cell/cell-division-significance-and-types-of-cell-division/6188

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cell/cell-cycle-definition-and-control-of-cell-cycle-with-diagram/6173

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cell/cell-cycle/4-major-phases-of-the-cell-cycle-with-diagram/36902

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/animals-2/cell-division-animals-2/cell-division-in-organisms-with-diagram/32305

  5. Mitosis http://www.biologydiscussion.com/mitosis/phases/phases-of-mitosis-4-phases-cell-division/54060

  6. Meiosis http://www.biologydiscussion.com/meiosis/cell-divisions-of-meiosis-with-diagram-botany/54079

  7. Cell Cycle and Regulation http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cell/cell-cycle/cell-cycle-introduction-phases-and-controlling-phases/26770

  8. https://www.easybiologyclass.com/cell-cycle-checkpoints-regulation-cancer/

 

Cell Wall and Plasma Membrane: Chemistry Structure and Function of Cell wall

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/eukaryotic-cell/cell-wall-of-eukaryotic-cells-structure-and-function/5890

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/cell-wall/structure-of-cell-wall-with-diagram-plants/68847

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/cell-wall/cell-wall-meaning-function-and-structure-with-diagram/70471

 

Overview of Membrane Function; Fluid Mosaic Model; Chemical Composition of Membrane

  1. https://www.britannica.com/science/membrane-biology

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cell/microbial-cells/plasma-membrane-meaning-and-function-microbiology/64913

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cell/plasma-membrane/study-notes-on-plasma-membrane-cell-biology/26277

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cell-membrane/cell-membrane-meaning-appearance-and-composition/70492

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cell/plasma-membrane/plasma-membrane-meaning-structure-and-functions/35731

 

Membrane Transport

  1. https://bio.libretexts.org/Courses/University_of_California_Davis/BIS_2A%3A_Introductory_Biology_(Easlon)/Readings/15.2%3A_Membrane_Transport

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cell-membrane/transport-across-cell-membrane-4-ways-biology/85184

  3. https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Biochemistry/Book%3A_Biochemistry_Free_For_All_(Ahern%2C_Rajagopal%2C_and_Tan)/3%3A_Membranes/3.2%3A_Transport_in_Membranes

 

Unit 4

Cell Organelles: Nucleus; Nucleus Structure Envolope, Nuclear Pore Complex, Nuclear Lamina, Molecular Organization of Chromatin; Nucleolus

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/essay/essay-on-nucleus-structure-position-and-functions/70491

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/nucleus/5-main-structures-of-nucleus-with-diagram-cell-biology/26567

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/nucleus/3-main-constituents-of-nucleus-cell-biology/38528

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/nucleus/5-main-parts-of-nucleus-biology/491

  5. Molecular Organization of Chromatin http://www.biologydiscussion.com/notes/chromatin-notes-on-chromatin-879-words-biology/561

  6. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/chromosomes/eukaryotic-chromosomes/organisation-of-chromatin-fibres/36107

  7. http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Educ/ChromatinEducEng.html

 

Cytoskeleton: Role and Structure of Microtubules, Microfilaments and Intermediate Filaments

  1. https://biologydictionary.net/cytoskeleton/

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/eukaryotic-cell/cytoskeletal-structures-of-eukaryotic-cell/70434

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/eukaryotic-cell/element-of-cytoskeleton-of-eukaryotic-cell-with-diagram/5980

  4. http://www.biologyreference.com/Co-Dn/Cytoskeleton.html

  5. https://www.biology-pages.info/C/Cytoskeleton.html

 

Chloroplast; Structural Organization and Semiautonomous Nature

  1. https://alevelbiology.co.uk/notes/chloroplasts-structure-and-functions/

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cell/chloroplast/chloroplast-subject-matter-origin-and-structure-cell-biology/26310

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/notes/chloroplasts-notes-on-the-ultrastructure-of-chloroplasts/776

  4. https://nptel.ac.in/courses/102103012/module1/lec7/4.html

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plastids/plastids-types-structure-and-function-with-diagram/38591

 

Mitochondria; Structural Organization and Semiautonomous Nature

  1. https://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/mitochondria/mitochondria.html

  2. https://www.britannica.com/science/mitochondrion

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/mitochondria/mitochondria-meaning-structure-and-functions/70470

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/mitochondria/quick-notes-on-mitochondria-biology/38605

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/mitochondria/main-functions-of-mitochondria-biology/688

 

Peroxisomes

  1. https://nptel.ac.in/courses/102103012/module1/lec7/1.html

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/notes/peroxisomes-notes-on-the-origin-and-structure-of-peroxisomes/742

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/essay/cell-biology-essay/essay-peroxisomes-cell-eukaryotic-cells-biology/78879

 

Endoplasmic Reticulum

  1. https://www.britannica.com/science/endoplasmic-reticulum

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cell-membrane/endoplasmic-reticulum-structure-types-and-function-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-biology/1819

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cell/endoplasmic-reticulum/endoplasmic-reticulum-er-discovery-types-and-functions/70515

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cell/endoplasmic-reticulum/endoplasmic-reticulum-meaning-and-functions-cell-biology/26289

 

Golgi Apparatus

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cell/golgi-apparatus/golgi-apparatus-meaning-structure-and-functions/70510

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cell/golgi-complex/golgi-complex-structure-and-functions-with-diagram/36799

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/eukaryotic-cell/golgi-apparatus-of-eukaryote-cells-with-diagram/5956

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cell/golgi-complex/structure-of-golgi-complex-with-diagram-botany/54540

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cell/golgi-apparatus-14-most-important-function-of-golgi-apparatus-biology/1814

 

Lysosome

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/lysosomes/lysosomes-meaning-structure-and-function-with-diagram/38571

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/lysosomes/lysosomes-discovery-types-and-functions-organelles/70461

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/lysosomes/lecture-notes-on-lysosomes/36819

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/lysosomes/8-main-functions-of-lysosomes-biology/784