Core PAper - I

Microbiology and Phycology

 

Unit -1

Introduction to Microbial World

  1. http://wikieducator.org/Microbial_World

  2. https://nptel.ac.in/courses/102103015/1

  3. https://www.britannica.com/science/microbiology

  4. https://www.cliffsnotes.com/study-guides/biology/microbiology/introduction-to-microbiology/a-brief-history-of-microbiology

  5. https://microbiologyonline.org/about-microbiology/introducing-microbes

 

 

Microbial Nutrition, Growth and Metabolism

  1. http://library.open.oregonstate.edu/microbiology/chapter/microbial-nutrition/

  2. https://nptel.ac.in/courses/102103015/pdf/mod4.pdf

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/nutritional-types-and-bacterias/23865

  4. Microbial Nutrition (https://nptel.ac.in/courses/102103015/9)

  5. Microbial Nutrition (https://www.britannica.com/science/microbiology#ref216175)

  6. Microbial growth (https://nptel.ac.in/courses/102103015/12)

  7. Microbial growth (https://www.britannica.com/science/microbiology#ref216176)

  8. Microbial Metabolism (https://nptel.ac.in/courses/102103015/17)

  9. Microbial Metabolism (https://www.britannica.com/science/microbiology#ref216177)

  10. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/metabolism/microbial-metabolism/processes-of-metabolism-in-an-organism-microbiology/65472

 

Viruses: Physiochemical and Biological Characteristics

  1.  https://www.britannica.com/science/virus

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/viruses/viruses-meaning-nature-and-structure/34302

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/viruses/viruses-history-and-features-of-viruses/5675

  4. Introduction (https://www.khanacademy.org/science/high-school-biology/hs-human-body-systems/hs-the-immune-system/a/intro-to-viruses)

 

Classification of Virus (Baltimore)

  1. https://microbeonline.com/baltimore-system-classifications-viruses/

  2. http://library.open.oregonstate.edu/microbiology/chapter/the-viruses/

 

 

Structure of Virus (General Structure with special reference to Viriods and Prions)

  1. https://www.onlinebiologynotes.com/virus-structure-symmetry/

  2. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-microbiology/chapter/structure-of-viruses/

  3. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-biology/chapter/prions-and-viroids/

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/viruses/structure-of-viruses-with-diagram-botany/54588

  5. https://morgridge.org/wp-content/uploads/Virus-Structure.pdf

  6. https://byjus.com/biology/viroids/

  7. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/viruses/viroids-discovery-structure-and-multiplication/23846

  8. http://www.virology.ws/2016/09/15/structure-of-an-infectious-prion/

  9. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/essay/diseases/study-notes-on-prions/23848

 

Replication General Account, DNA virus (T-phage), lytic and lysogenic cycle

  1. https://www.immunology.org/public-information/bitesized-immunology/pat%C3%B3genos-y-enfermedades/virus-replication

  2. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-microbiology/chapter/viral-replication/

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/viruses/bacteriophages-structure-and-reproduction-replication-cycle/5690

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/viruses/replication-of-virus-lytic-and-lysogenic-cycle/47112

  5. https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Microbiology/Book%3A_Microbiology_(OpenStax)/06%3A_Acellular_Pathogens/6.2%3A_The_Viral_Life_Cycle

 

Economic Importance of viruses with reference to Vaccine production, Role in Research, medicine and diagnostics

  1. https://www.vaccines.gov/basics/types

  2. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002024.htm

  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inactivated_vaccine

  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus#Applications

  5. https://www.news-medical.net/health/Virus-Uses.aspx

  6. https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/31/3/739/297506

  7. https://www.wikilectures.eu/w/Biology_and_genetics_of_viruses,_importance_in_medicine

 

Virus as a causal organism of plant diseases

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant_virus

  2. https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/plpath-gen-5

  3. https://www.hunker.com/12280881/list-of-diseases-in-plants-caused-by-viruses

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/diseases-caused-by-virus-in-plants-with-control-measures/24110

Unit - 2

Bacteria: Discovery, General Characteristics

  1. https://microbiologyonline.org/about-microbiology/introducing-microbes/bacteria

  2. https://explorable.com/discovery-of-bacteria

  3. https://www.britannica.com/science/bacteria

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/bacteria-definition-morphology-classification-and-reproduction-microbiology/85801

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/cell-structure-of-bacteria-with-diagram/47058

  6. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/notes/bacteria-notes/notes-on-bacteria-biology/34260

  7. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/essay/essay-on-bacteria-microbiology/29550

  8. https://nptel.ac.in/courses/102103015/3

  9. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/structure-of-bacterial-cell-with-diagram/29700

     

Types of Bacteria: Archebacteria and Eubacteria Wall less Forms (mycoplasma and spheroplast)

  1. https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Cell_Biology/Cell_types/Bacteria

  2. https://biology.homeomagnet.com/classification-of-bacteria/

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/archaebacteria-definition-types-and-uses/52063

  4. https://biologydictionary.net/archaebacteria/

  5. https://biologywise.com/characteristics-of-archaebacteria

  6. https://biologydictionary.net/eubacteria/

  7. Mycoplasma (http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/mycoplasmas-discovery-classification-and-structure/46983)

  8. Spheroplasts (https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/protoplasts-and-spheroplasts)

 

Structure of Bacteria
 

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/cell-structure-of-bacteria-with-diagram/47058

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/structure-of-bacterial-cell-with-diagram/29700

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/structure-of-bacteria-with-diagram-microbiology/54559

  4. https://www.onlinebiologynotes.com/bacterial-cell-structure-function/

 

Nutritional Types

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/nutritional-types-and-bacterias/23865

  2. https://sciencing.com/nutritional-types-bacteria-2515.html

     

Bacterial Reproduction Vegetative, Asexual and Recombination (Conjugation Transformation and Transduction)

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/reproduction-in-bacteria-5-methods-with-diagram/47062

  2. https://www.biologyexams4u.com/2012/11/reproduction-in-bacteria-vegetative.html#.XO0JnlbhXIU

  3. https://biology.homeomagnet.com/reproduction-of-bacteria/

  4. https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/bacteria-archaea/prokaryote-structure/a/genetic-variation-in-prokaryotes

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/genetic-recombination-of-bacteria-with-diagram/47074

     

Economic Importance of Bacteria with reference to their role in agriculture and Industry (Fermentation and medicine)

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/economic-importance-of-bacteria-microbiology/63951

  2. https://notes.tyrocity.com/economic-importance-of-bacteria/

  3. https://www.britannica.com/science/bacteria/The-importance-of-bacteria-to-humans

  4. http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/bacteria/importance-of-bacteria-to-agriculture-and-industries-1049-words/6789

  5. http://istudy.pk/economic-importance-bacteria/

  6. https://www.studocu.com/en/document/al-hikmah-university/microbiology/lecture-notes/economic-importance-of-bacteria/2209869/view
     

Cyanobacteria Ecology and Occurrence

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/cyanobacteria/cyanobacteria-occurrence-morphology-and-cell-structure/52036

  2. https://www.britannica.com/science/blue-green-algae

  3. https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria/cyanointro.html

  4. http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/biology/the-characteristic-features-of-cyanobacteria-biology-290-words/7096

 

Cyanobacteria Structure, Heterocyst and Reproduction

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/cytology/structure-of-cyanobacteria-blue-green-algae/36793

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/cell-structure-of-cyanobacteria-microbiology/64956

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/cyanobacteria/cyanobacteria-classification-reproduction-and-parasexuality/54803

  4. Heterocyst ( http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/cell-structure-of-cyanophyceae-with-diagram/46748)

  5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heterocyst

 

Economic Importance, Role in biotechnology

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bacteria/cyanobacteria/importance-of-cyanobacteria-9-importance/52037

  2. https://www.slideshare.net/payal96/cyanobacteria-presentation

  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanobacteria#Biotechnology_and_applications
     

Morphology and life cycle of Nostoc

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/morphology-of-nostoc-with-diagram-algae/54167

  2. https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Nostoc

  3. https://www.kullabs.com/classes/subjects/units/lessons/notes/note-detail/1506

  4. https://guidancecorner.com/nostoc/
     

General Character of Prochlorophyceae and evolutionary significance of Prochloron

  1. https://biocyclopedia.com/index/algae/algae/cyanophyta_and_prochlorophyta.php

  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prochlorophyta

  3. https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Prochloron

Unit - 3

Algae: General Characteristics: Ecology and Distribution, Range of thallus organization, cell structure and components, cell wall, pigment system, reserve food material

  1. https://www.britannica.com/science/algae

  2. https://www.toppr.com/guides/evs/a-treat-for-mosquito/algae/

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/characteristics-algae/characteristics-of-algae-with-diagram/49889

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/algae-definition-characteristics-and-structure-with-diagram/46727

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/thallus-organisation-in-algae-botany/53555

  6. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/cell-structures-in-algae-with-diagram/46759

  7. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/structure-of-algae-with-diagram-algae/57899

 

 

Reproduction in algae

  1. https://www.britannica.com/science/algae/Reproduction-and-life-histories

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/reproduction-in-algae-3-modes/46735

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/reproduction-algae/reproduction-in-algae-botany/53445

 

Classification of algae, criteria, system of Fritsch, evolution classification of Lee

  1. https://www.britannica.com/science/algae/Classification-of-algae

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/classification-of-algae-6-criterions/53753

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/classification-of-algae-microbiology/64804

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/biotechnology/algae-biotechnology/classification-of-algae-by-various-botanists/46704

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/top-6-types-of-classification-of-algae/20951

  6. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/classification-of-algae-microbiology/64804

  7. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/classes/classes-of-algae-11-classes-botany/53367

 

Role of Algae in Environment, agriculture, biotechnology and industries

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/economic-importance-of-algae-botany-2/57866

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/essay/top-16-economic-importance-of-algae-biology/20897

  3. https://www.britannica.com/science/algae/Ecological-and-commercial-importance

  4. https://biology.homeomagnet.com/economic-importance-of-algae/

 

Cholrophyta: General Characteristics, range of thallus organization, Cell Structure and Reproduction

  1. http://www.seaweed.ie/algae/chlorophyta.php

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/chlorophyta-features-and-distribution-algae/57905

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/chlorophyceae-occurrence-characteristics-and-classification/46781

  4. http://domainbiology.blogspot.com/2017/10/chlorophyta-multiseluler-traits-habitat.html

  5. http://www.uobabylon.edu.iq/eprints/publication_12_3410_754.pdf

 

 

Morphology and Life cycle of Chlamydomonas

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/morphology-of-chlamydomonas-with-diagram-algae/54125

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/life-cycle-algae/chlamydomonas-position-occurrence-and-structure-with-diagrams/21052

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/life-cycle-of-chlamydomonas-with-diagram/53699

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/chlamydomonas-occurrence-features-and-life-history/46847

 

Morphology and life cycle of Volvox

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/life-cycle-algae/volvox-occurrence-structure-and-reproduction-with-diagrams/21149

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/volvox-occurrence-features-and-life-cycle/46862

  3. https://biologyboom.com/type-volvox/

 

Morphology and Life cycle of Oedogonium

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/morphology-of-oedogonium-with-diagram-algae/54177

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/oedogonium-occurrence-features-and-reproduction/46929

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/life-cycle-of-oedogonium-with-diagram/53706

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/life-cycle-algae/quick-notes-on-oedogoniales-with-diagrams-algae/21084

 

Morphology and Life Cycle of Choleochaete

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/morphology-of-coleochaete-with-diagram-algae/54179

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/coleochaete-occurenece-features-and-reproduction/46883

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/life-cycle-algae/quick-notes-on-coleochaete-algae/21090

 

 

Unit -4

Charophyta: General Characteristics, Occurrence, Morphology, Cell Structure and Life cycle of Chara; Evolutionary significance

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charophyta

  2. https://biologyboom.com/division-charophyta/

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/chara-occurrence-features-and-reproduction/46890

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/life-cycle-algae/chara-occurrence-structure-and-reproduction-algae/21135

  5. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/biology/genus-chara-useful-notes-on-genus-chara-2471-words-biology/906

 

Xanthophyta; General Characteristics, Occurrence, Morphology, Cell Structure and Life cycle of Vaucheria; Evolutionary significance

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/9-main-characteristics-of-xanthophyceae/46897

  2. https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/chromista/xanthophyta.html

  3. https://www.plantscience4u.com/2014/04/main-characteristics-of-xanthophyceae.html#.XPLRAlbhXIU

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/biology-notes-on-xanthophyta-algae/58055

  5. https://www.encyclopedia.com/plants-and-animals/microbes-algae-and-fungi/moneran-and-protistan/yellow-green-algae

  6. Vaucheria (http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/morphology-of-vaucheria-with-diagram-algae/54200)

  7. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/life-cycle-algae/vaucheria-occurrence-reproduction-and-life-cycle/21185

  8. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/vaucheria-occurrence-features-and-reproduction/46949

  9. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/biology/genus-vaucheria-useful-notes-on-genus-vaucheria-1392-words/870

 

Phaeophyta; General Characteristics, Occurrence, Morphology, Cell Structure and Life cycle of Ectocarpus and Fucus

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/phaeophyta-features-and-relationships-algae/58072

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/phaeophyceae-brown-algae-description-and-classification/46948

  3. https://biologywise.com/phaeophyta-brown-algae

 

Cell Structure and Life cycle of Ectocarpus

  1. www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/ectocarpus-occurrence-features-and-reproduction/46968

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/life-cycle-algae/quick-notes-on-ectocarpus-with-diagram-algae/21211

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/life-cycle-of-ectocarpus-with-diagram-algae/58079

 

Cell Structure and Life cycle of Fucus

  1. https://www.britannica.com/science/Fucus

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/classification-of-fucales-with-diagram-algae/58105

  3. https://www.vcbio.science.ru.nl/en/virtuallessons/brownalgae/

  4. http://cronodon.com/BioTech/Seaweeds.html

 

Rhodophyta; General Characteristics, Occurrence, Morphology, Cell Structure and Life cycle of Polysiphonia

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/red-algae-characters-and-types-with-diagram/52159

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/rhodophyta-features-and-phylogenetic-relationships/58116

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/rhodophyceae-description-characteristics-and-classification/46763

  4. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/thallus-structure-of-polysiphonia-with-diagram-rhodophyta/53840

 

Morphology, Cell Structure and Life cycle of Polysiphonia

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/morphology-of-polysiphonia-with-diagram-algae/54214

  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/bryophyta/polysiphonia-occurrence-thallus-structure-and-reproduction/21249

  3. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/polysiphonia-occurrence-features-and-reproduction/46779

  4. https://www.easybiologyclass.com/polysiphonia-thallus-structure-reproduction-post-fertilization-changes-and-life-cycle/

  5. http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/reproduction/important-modes-of-reproduction-found-in-the-class-polysiphonia-biology/7438